WHAT IS DIAMOND MEANING
The hardness of diamonds is estimated higher scores on the Mohs scale. It is more than 100 times the strength of corundum.
Diamond stones are the hardest in the world of minerals. Diamond is no accident that the “king of stones”. The ancient Greeks used the word to name the diamond “adamas” meaning “invincible”. In another version, the word “ diamond ” back to the Persian “elma” meaning “hard”.
In olden times the hardness of diamonds is clearly exaggerated, considering that this stone is impossible to break even a hammer on the anvil. Probably not one stone has suffered, unable to withstand such a harsh “test” to be true. Yet the diamond is the hardest precious stone. Thanks to this feature jewelers could not put the diamonds cut to the XIV century. And so until that time their role in the history of mankind is small.
Even at school we all know that diamonds are natural octahedral crystals of carbon, formed at high pressures and temperatures. Many diamond gems glow in the dark.
Faceted diamond called brilliant (from the French “brilliant” meaning “shining”). Diamonds are known to mankind for several millennia, but the first cut these precious stones were only in the XIV century. Natural diamonds are in the shape of an octahedron, and the first masters only polished natural stone face. Such diamonds are called “sharp” or “diamond-tipped”.
Around 1400 there were “stones of the platform” – cut down the tip. Bottom “an acute” angle cut also a little sawed. As a result, receive little ground – the so-called doublet.
When grinding the edges of diamond having plane – facets. Simple faceted stone has 18 facets. Double cut, the idea is attributed to Cardinal Mazarin (about 1650), includes 34 facets. As a result diamond gemstone takes almost round shape. At the end of XVII century Vicenzo Peruzzi has developed a triple faceting of 58 facets. Some modern versions of the full cut has already been developed in the XX century. The smallest diamond brilliant cut was made by hand between 1991 and 1994.
Right cut diamonds though emits rays of light. Russian writer Alexander Kuprin noted that “it is the sunlight, curdled on the ground and cooled time … He plays all the colours, but he remains transparent, like a drop of water “.
DIAMOND BRILLIANT JEWELRY
Among the world’s mined diamonds only about 20% going to jewelry . Others are used in engineering. However, mining and processing of diamonds make up the cost of more than 90% of the production of all other precious stones.When diamond evaluation The so-called rule Tavernier: prices of two different mass diamonds correspond, as the squares of their weights, expressed in carats. In other words, the stone of 10 carats, worth a hundred times more expensive then 1-carat diamond.
Most significant diamond deposits exist in Australia, Angola, Brazil, Zaire, India, Venezuela, Indonesia, Namibia, USA, Tanzania and South Africa, Russia (in Yakutia).
Above all valued transparent colorless diamonds or stones that are slightly bluish tint. There diamond gems painted in blue, pink, red and green colors
In the Middle Ages, a virtual monopoly on the production of large diamond owned Indian Moguls. They are not allowed to export from the country’s largest precious stones. To circumvent this obstacle, some European jewelers did inlaid pendants, making them out of tight fitting of smaller stones.
It was a very thin, time-consuming and very expensive work, requiring extraordinary precision in grinding and fitting of faceted stones. Nonsuch decorations such as a pendant with diamond jack , kept in the treasury of the Saxon electors – the most extensive collection of jewelry on the European continent.
There are many so-called “ historical diamonds ”», whose history is lost to the mists of time. One of these stones is a famous Indian diamond ‘Koh-i-Noor “- which means “mountain of light”. It was discovered in the mines of Golconda in southern India and weighing 800 carats. First of all they owned the founders of the dynasty of the Mughals and then the stone fell into the hands of the Shah of Persia conquered India Nadira.
Since diamond has changed a lot of owners, until in 1849, not passed into the possession of the representatives of the East India Company. In 1850, Lord Dalhousie gave the stone to Queen Victoria. In 1852 the stone was refaceted, and as a result his weight dropped from 186 to 109 carats.Unfortunately, this transformation did not go to his benefit, and the Koh-i-Noor lost a large share of its attractiveness.
No less interesting story is world famous diamond “Orlov” . In the unanimous opinion of specialists, he is one of the finest diamonds ever found in India. Diamond was discovered in the early XVII century. Initially, he weighed about 300 carats. According to one legend, this stone was one of the diamonds, which served as the eyes of the statue of Brahma.
Then it belonged to Nadir Shah. After its fall, the diamond was in Amsterdam, where he was purchased by the Armenian merchant Lazarev for 400 thousand rubles Count Grigory Orlov, and given to the Empress Catherine II. Now he adorns stored in the Diamond Fund of Russia Imperial scepter. Diamond faceted as a high “Indian roses”.
The largest known faceted diamond is “Cullinan”, whose mass reaches 3106 carats. Diamond was found accidentally in 1905, mining inspector in South Africa. In 1907 the Government of the Transvaal diamond, a gift from the King of England Edward VII. As a result of unsuccessful attempts to cut out “Cullinan” was made 9 large and 96 small diamonds. Weight of the largest of them – “Big Star of Africa” – is 530 carats. The second largest diamond – “Little Star of Africa” weighing 317 carats – adorns the current crown of the British Empire.
On light there are many historical diamonds , among which the “Great Mogul”, “Darya-I-Nur”, “Pitt”, “Sancy”, “Florentine”, “Shah”, and many others.
DIAMOND HEALING PROPERTIES
In antiquity Diamond considered a symbol of the purity and innocence. It also symbolized the perfection, invincibility, strength and power. Diamond can dispel fears and to protect its wearer from negative influences.
The Indian magic diamond gemstones is the main stumbling seventh chakra, connecting people with the cosmic forces. Yoga believe that the powerful energy of diamond clarity is fueling their vibrations heart, brain, and subtle “ethereal” body man.
Diamond makes its holder invincible in battle. Not accidentally, Napoleon always kept a large diamond. Diamond jewelry protects them from evil spells sorcerers, reflecting their evil energy.
It believed that “work” only diamonds, which are purchased by honest, free of coercion and violence. Otherwise the diamond can render unkind service to its owner.Wearing diamond jewellery to criminals is contraindicated. The greatest strength has the same stone, received a gift or inherited.
Diamonds attributed to the amazing healing properties. Already the ancient Indians believed that the “vibration” diamonds have a positive effect on various organs of the body, especially on the heart and brain. In ancient times believed that the diamond is able to deal with poisons. Also considered that diamonds protected the owner from his disease, distilled bad dreams, struggle with hypochondria, prevent apoplexy and the formation of stones in the body.
Hindus believe that diamond amulet reduces the high temperature, fights infections, helps with skin diseases, relieves fatigue and activates the metabolism. Diamond ring helps in childbirth. Particularly active in this regard green diamonds , who even considered a symbol of motherhood.
Modern litoterapists not supposed to wear someone else’s diamond jewelry or with stones of poor quality, not to mention synthetic diamonds. To promote health, they are advised to drink a daily glass of “diamond” water, in which the night lay gold jewelry with diamonds. It is not recommended while using jewellery belonging to another person or with stones of poor quality.
Diamonds are good “working” in contact healing. People are impulsive, with high pressure, constantly wear diamond jewelry is not recommended.
Astrologers believe Diamond is a stone of the Sun and Venus. Diamond is July birthstone.