|WHAT IS PEARLS MEANING
Pearl are the only jewelry materials produced in the body of mollusks, and he, perhaps, is one of the oldest stones used as jewelry, since it does not require additional treatment. For centuries, high quality gems were sold for fabulous prices, but with the advent of cultured pearls on the market in 1920-1930-ies this pricing supremacy came to an end.
Formation of pearls inside the oyster bags are a reaction to the presence of mollusc irritating particles. Mollusk consistently envelops its layers of crystals of aragonite (calcium carbonate), and fastened together with organic matter, konkhialine. The layers grow like an onion, and there is a gem. Crystals of aragonite are placed in the same manner as the tiles on the roof - hence the unique pearly luster.
When the mantle cavity of bivalve gets a grain of sand or other foreign object on the surface can begin to put off a plate of aragonite, which consists of calcium carbonate. It begins to grow pearl. A writer poetically described this process: “Pearl, pure gift of the sea! In the bosom of the ocean, close to the sink, he grew up lonely like an unknown flower ...”
Pearl increases to the size of a pea in 12 years. Mineral plate fastened with organic matter’s help. Its change with time is the cause of "aging" of pearls, which leads to the loss of its luster.
Color of pearls can be not only white, but yellow, red, blue and even black. Ancient Greeks called the pearl of the word “margarites”.
In cultured pearls bead appears as the nucleus, which postpones clam layers of natural nacre. The best method for identification of cultured pearls is to check the X-ray - under them perfectly visible bead nucleus. Do a good cultured pearl layer of natural nacre is thick enough, the same low-quality - it is just a thin film on the surface of glass beads. There is a cultured pearls necklace with such a thin layer of nacre, that the beads under him were well visible. Thickness nacre layer in cultured pearls can range from approximately 0.5 mm to 3 mm.
We must say that the man who once studied the pearls , begins to understand in its different forms, he most important when working with natural samples. Pearl should have good color and luster, and the best pearls have pink hue, and his "skin" should be as smooth and intact. Colour low-quality cultured pearls usually wax on the surface of visible defects, similar to the following form to fill. The better the color and luster, the higher the value of pearls. Big natural pearls with good color, glossy, smooth and regular shape, is still very expensive.This jewel of over 10 mm in diameter is considered a rare and highly valued. Necklaces even of cultured pearls at an auction can cost over a million dollars.
Pearl is known for people with hoary antiquity. It was already mentioned in the old Indian epic "Rigveda” and the Old Testament of the Bible (in particular, in the texts attributed to King Solomon). For two thousand years BC the Chinese were paying tribute pearls. In the Persian Gallery of Louvre preserves ancient, consisting of three threads, a pearl necklace. Pearl was known to other tribes and the Incas of South America.
Price of pearls depends on its size and color. More expensive prized pearls, has rich shades. Pearls prices fell after the development of methods of its cultivation in the shells of the special marine farms. To distinguish such a gem was found by chance is practically impossible, because in both cases, this is her producer shellfish. The largest pearl is extracted from the shells of the largest bivalve mollusks - clams. However, these pearls are usually irregular in shape.
"Baroque" pearls and pearl of irregular shape, cultured or natural, are much cheaper than round or the correct form of the samples. "Blister" gems are cut from the conch shell, so they take the form cabochon. Two blister pearl, bonded together, can mimic a large round pearl, if the line glued mask frame. Pearls "Japa" or "Mabe" also blister, but their core is a disc, the cost of any blister pearls small.
Pearls "imitations" are usually made of glass beads, which layer of "oriental essences" extracted from fish scales, or hollow beads coated with the same substance inside. To test in this case can the old-fashioned rub the pearl on the front teeth, while natural or artificial pearl will be a little rough, and simulation will remain smooth.
Pink Pearl, like coral, growing in shells and show the characteristic pattern on the surface, visible throughmagnifying glass, and silver glitter. The best of them can cost several thousand pounds.
River pearl has much less luster, it can be found in jewelry XIX - early XX century, this is usually the pearls extracted from the River Tay in Scotland, and from Mississippi in the U.S.. Anti-nuclear cultured pearls produced in the river farms in Japan, and recently - in China, in huge quantities, such pearls weigh less than normal cultured samples, they are whiter, but can be specially painted, their shape is rather oval. Once seen, it is easy then to distinguish their cost is low.
In Russia have long been mined freshwater pearls, which is extracted from the shell-pearl, living in fast and clean northern rivers.
In Russia was extended pearls sewing. In XVIII-XIX centuries, most often they were decorated with hats, which are produced mainly in northern and central regions of Russia. For example, richly decorated with river pearls bishop's miter, stored in the Moscow State Historical Museum. It was made in the last quarter of the XVII century. and altered for the velvet base in the XVIII century.
Natural black pearl is rare and highly valued. Cultured pearls are sometimes dyed silver nitrate, making it similar to the black, but such an induced color is darker and homogeneous. There are ways to grow cultured black pearls, and if the samples reach a significant size, then their cost can be large.
In determining the quality of pearls lover is best to contact an authoritative gemology laboratory, where there are X-ray equipment, in addition, buying an expensive pearl, the buyer may request the seller's certificate of origin.
|PEARLS HEALING PROPERTIES
On the therapeutic action pearl healing properties are mentioned in the famous "Canon" of Avicenna and the writings of the ancient Arab physicians. It is believed that pearl jewelry have a beneficial effect on the human body in hypertension. Not accidentally, in the famous monument of Tibetan Medicine "Chzhud-shek" indicates that the pearl helps with nerve disorders, memory loss and nervous weakness.
For medicinal purposes is also used so-called «pearl water», where during the night were a few gems. On the morning so water can be drunk. It is believed that it helps with bleeding gums and hemorrhoids, is useful in treating conjunctivitis, can beneficially influence in diseases of liver and cholelithiasis. Pearl water has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial effects. Lithotherapists believe that it can normalize the menstrual cycle.
In China Taoists believed pearl is frozen feminine Yin, the elixir of youth, prolonging life. So far in Mongolia and China believe that in pearls amulet lies miraculous healing power, which helps in the treatment of cataracts and other eye diseases.
It is believed that pearls , losing its original luster, reports of possible illness of his master. Some reasons for this are because the beauty of pearls, fades with time, but it often brings to the old variety of ailments. In addition, the change range of chemical substances released skin, which can react and pearls, is indeed an indicator of certain diseases.
Not surprisingly, thanks to its soft, muted luster pearls is the stone of the moon. Pearl is June birthstone.